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Project Description

California The SMART-2 Model of Care Partnership was created by WestCare California, Inc. and its community partners in Fresno County, CA, as an extension of SMART which was implemented in 2004. The approach was designed to build on an existing interagency collaboration of children’s services, focusing on an often un-served or underserved population of children of substance abusing parents, with the overall goal of improving the safety, permanency and well-being of the children and their families affected by methamphetamine and other substance abuse. The SMART-2 services targeted parents, and their children (birth to 12 years old), who were enrolled in WestCare’s residential and outpatient substance abuse treatment programs. An array of research-based interventions was provided onsite through the Children’s Centers to the parents and their children. In addition, parents also received linkage services.

Target Population

Screening, Making Decisions, Assessments, Referrals, Treatment (SMART-2) targeted:

  • Un-served and underserved children birth to 12 years of age who were at risk for medical, mental health, emotional, developmental and learning problems as a result of parental substance use
  • Parents and family members of the un-served and underserved children aforementioned

Major Project Goals

  • Improving the coordination of services;
  • Increasing therapeutic services to children of substance abusing parents;
  • Improving the mental health, functioning, parenting skills and home environment of substance abusing parents;
  • Increasing the knowledge and skills of field professionals in child welfare, practitioners and provider agency staff on issues affecting children of substance abusing parents and their families.

Key Major Program Services

Case Management and In-Home Services

  • Family Group Decision Making/Family Case Conferencing

Parenting/Family Strengthening

  • Manualized/Evidence-Based Parenting Program – Nurturing Parenting, Positive Parenting, Incredible Years

Mental Health and Trauma Services for Adults

  • Trauma-Informed Services
  • Trauma-Specific Services – Seeking Safety, Beyond Trauma

Substance Abuse Treatment for Adults

  • Long-Term Residential/Inpatient – Matrix Model
  • Residential/Inpatient – Specialized for Parents with Children

Children’s Services

  • Early Intervention and Developmental Services

Specialized Outreach, Engagement and Retention

  • Cognitive Behavioral Strategies – Motivational Interviewing/Motivation Enhancement Therapy, Moral Reconation Therapy, Contingency Management

Screening and Assessment – Child Welfare and Other Children’s Issues

  • Screening and Assessment for Trauma
  • Specialized Screening and Assessment – Developmental, Behavioral/Socio-Emotional, Speech/Language

Partner Agencies and Organizations

The Screening, Making Decisions, Assessments, Referrals, Treatment (SMART-2) Project includes the following partners:

Child Welfare

  • County Child Welfare
  • Child Welfare Service Provider


  • Dependency Court


  • Early Childhood Education
  • County School District
  • College/University
  • Early Childhood Education Services Provider
  • Early Childhood Council
  • Parent Education Service Provider

Health Services

  • County Public Health/ Maternal Child Health
  • County Public Health/ Other
  • Children’s Health Services Provider

Mental Health

  • Mental Health Services Provider


  • State/County Temporary Assistance for Needy Families

Other Community and Child and Family Services

  • Child and Family Services Provider
  • Domestic Violence Services Provider

Performance Indicators


Substance Use: The percentage of women reporting alcohol and drug use within 30 days decreased from 71.9 percent to 18.9 percent from program admission to the six-month follow-up.

Child Well-Being

Child Well-Being: Children enrolled in the SMART-2 Program maintained or increased their developmental state on all measures with the exception of gross motor while their parents were enrolled in treatment.

Adult Well-Being

Mental Health Status: Parents had less depressive symptoms after treatment than upon entering treatment as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II).

Sustainability Status

  • Children of parents enrolled in WestCare’s residential program will continue to receive developmental and trauma screenings
  • Children will continue to be referred to Exceptional Parents for follow-up assessments and linked to community services when warranted
  • Parenting programs will continue to be provided to parents enrolled in WestCare’s residential treatment program

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Project Details

  • Lead Agency:
    WestCare California, Inc.
  • Geographic Area and Congressional District Served:
    Fresno County; Congressional District 9
  • Federal Grant:
    $500,000/5 years
  • Evaluation Design and Comparison Group Type:
    Quasi-experimental, Same-Time, Matched Case-Level
  • Proposed Number Served (5 years):
    Children: 841
    Adults: 470
    Families: 470
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